A frequency distribution may be represented diagramatically by the frequency polygon. In this, instead of means, proportions and its universe are used in a sample. Its main purpose is to display quantities in the form of bars. How well the experiment test the hypothesis underlying it. It could be argued that this is another way in which qualitative research methods significantly differ from quantitative approaches. In this case, we calculate the standard error of difference between two proportions: Chi-square (x2) test offers an alternate method of testing significance of difference between two proportions. The best methods to use for presenting data vary depending on the type of information, volume and complexity of data and the audience. Data visualization is an interdisciplinary field that deals with the graphic representation of data.It is a particularly efficient way of communicating when the data is numerous as for example a Time Series.From an academic point of view, this representation can be considered as a mapping between the original data (usually numerical) and graphic elements (for example, lines or points in a chart). Every time you put up some numbers on the slide, think about adding a relevant picture to add clarity to your message. Authors: Josée Dupuis, PhD, Professor of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health. This is where the researcher presents the data collected from respondents though not in the raw form. �+ԫc��C�� It is the most frequently used measure of deviation. The extent to which there is repeatability of an individual’s score or other’s test result. View Homework Help - DATA-PRESENTATION(5) from PSYCHOLOGY 31 at De La Salle University - Dasmariñas. My grandparents are getting to that age and, since the time of me writing this, my grandfather has passed away. �3n��Ur�D�Q���Ӣ�,CtM�8�����m|(��,0-C���a�2>�2>�d�3��it�q|N�����'�i�S��8D&�8D'
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W A slightly different approach to classification of cartographic presentation methods was introduced by A.H. Robinson (Robinson et al. The sample is deliberately drawn in a systematic way so that each portion of the sample represents a corresponding strata of the universe. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations research about Methods Of Data Collection PPT 3. b���Hc�n5A���&E�~�i!MF"�D4هh�
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�H���h�)�)�. of 1.0 implies exact similarity and C.C. Quantitative data is defined as the value of data in the form of counts or numbers where each data-set has an unique numerical value associated with it. This is done by assigning a number to each of the units (the individuals) in the sampling frame. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. C.C. �Q� Raw Data Data sheets are where the data are originally recorded. The shape of the curve will depend upon the mean and standard deviation which in turn will depend upon the number and nature of observation. i. PLAY. Subject chooses the acceptable answer rather than the true one. They are useful methods in presenting simple statistical data. Presentation of data with simple animation makes data powerful. Tables are devices for presenting data simply from masses of statistical data. ?ꛢ����4�[]��e��a-�2��˕�������f\P�=ּ���n%���S�����(n�ϛ2B�Ɔ�r�HV߆�V��idތC����`���b5oF���T2������� The main methods of presenting numerical data are through graphs, tables and text incorporation. A source of error (e.g., age and sex imbalance). The term “average” implies a value in the distribution, around which the other values are distributed. … Methods of Data Collection Survey Methods Self-Administered Questionnaires Interviews Methods of Observation Non-Participant Observation Participant Observation – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 6f5845-NWQ0N Data may be presented in (3 Methods): - Textual - Tabular or - Graphical. kKv�5̙=�б�l���l�8��!�ݮ"�m��$BPm �_3��?p���4A�[���I�j��`X�\Ͳ�1���T�,#/ �") �j�;��##m�YF: �e��\@�*�o�jݱD The Importance of Data Presentation . << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> �l�Ԩh�������揞�5+DΪ�ed ii. Tabular Method Provides a more precise, systematic and orderly presentation of data in rows or columns. value, find out a probability from published tables. Or, when legends and labels are present, they are often presented far away from associated data points. Researchers alter the situation by their presence. Data presentation methods- advantages and disadvatages. Data Presentation. If we take a random sample from the population, and similar samples over and over again, we will find that every sample will have a different mean. The area of each segment depends upon the angle. It is obtained by joining the mid-points of the histogram blocks. Observation Method 2. These scales are nominal, ordinal and numerical. Audience and context 3. is called “relative deviate or standard normal variate” and is usually denoted by Z. The variable used to measure the effect of the independent variable (e.g., recovery rates). Tabulation • Tabulation is the first step before the data is used for analysis or interpretation. • A table can be simple or complex, depending upon the number or measurement of single set or multiple sets of items. x�}]�Gr����?�hz�g��]�,:ĕe",;,=� ����ŕ�O�9Y�Y=s�B�Ɉ;�ʪ��SYY��]��:�����e�]և��r���tڟֻ��ӫ���_���yz����~����v�k����>�.�3��������f�O�_N��k����鯞?�כi��������ۏO������i�LO^=��͗��K����t:4ҋ��vz����<=�X��O����-/ Nominal scale A nominal scale is where: the data can be classified into a non-numerical or named categories, and the order in which these categories can be written or asked is arbitrary. It occurs because data were gathered from a sample rather than from the entire population of concern. (d) Standard Error of Difference Between Proportions: Instead of means, sometimes one has to test the significance of difference between two proportions or ratios to find out if the difference between the two proportions or ratios have occurred by chance. METHODS OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS . Content Guidelines 2. jkpgs. Data Graphics ; Data graphics are a good way to communicate important data in your reports. These assess the meaning of the data e.g.,: Measures the statistical relationship between two sets of variables, without assuming that either is dependent or independent. Graphical methods for presenting data 2.1 Introduction We have lookedatways of collectingdataand thencollatingthem intotables. The area between three S .D. presentation methods, and learning to graph data one has collected oneself from one s own experiments is considerably more engaging and motivating than learning to graph using data that is given by the teacher. Frequency tables are useful methods of presenting data; they do, however, have their limitations. The purpose of putting results of research into graphs, charts and tables is two-fold. By knowing χ2 and d.f. It is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest figures in a given sample. This will generate dimensions (e.g., psychotic neurotic). It consists of a series of blocks. Y��-����&QR�\k[�b�P�d �V�E�����"XC�S+$M����\���Y�7�k��U����;et�����a��� Spell. Diagrams are better retained in the memory than statistical tables. Similarly, a poorly created PowerPoint presentation can distract you from the information it's aiding to deliver. Variables are any constructs or events which research studies. Introduction "Modern data graphics can do much more than simply substitute for small statistical tables. Sometimes in a data presentation, numbers can be cold and intimidating. Data is initially collected from a given source, whether they are experiments, surveys, or observation, and is presented in one of four methods: Textual Method The reader acquires information through reading the gathered data. Created by. The bar chart is one of the most common methods of presenting data in a visual form. Test. Common presentation modes including coding data, data analysis, drawing diagrams, boxplots, tables, pie charts and histograms. Visual communication 2. The distance of a value (x) from the mean (X̅) of the curve in units of S.D. Semi-tabular Method Pictogram is a popular method of presenting data to the “man in the street” and to those who cannot understand orthodox charts. Gerald W. Ouma ; 25 March 2010; 2 Data Presentation . Before that, we will introduce some basic concepts of types of data and methods of data collection. High correlation between two halves of the same test. This is done by calculating the standard error of difference between the two means. Geography Data Presentation Techniques and Methods. iii. These limits on either side of the mean are called “confidence limits”. To diagnose psychiatric disorder accurately. iii. 1995), who proposed a division into methods in accordance with applied spatial dimension (point, linear, areal, 3D). Can only generate clusters not dimensions. Match. of the means is a measure of the sample error and is given by the formula σ√n which is called the standard error or the standard error of the mean. The class intervals are given along the horizontal axis and the frequencies along the vertical axis. Small pictures or symbols are used to present the data. The bar chart can be simple, multiple or component type. Looks for the minimum number of dimensions which can be used to define a group. In each of these groups he distinguished qualitative and quantitative methods. Presentation of Qualitative Data. The S.D. This forces the audience to … The antecedent condition manipulated by the experimenter (e.g., drug levels). The format for the presentation of data will depend on the target audience and the information that needs to be relayed. There are essentially two types: 1. ��ٓ�mw���I�6�N#���ML�+Ȟ Nominal data. This is done by picking every 5th or 10th units at regular intervals. Pictogram is a popular method of presenting data to the “man in the street” and to those who cannot understand orthodox charts. I know – what a way to start an article about data. The range is by far the simplest measure of dispersion. It gives a mental picture of the central value. Errors may occur due to inadequate calibrated instruments, due to observer variation as well as due to incomplete coverage achieved in examining the subjects selected and conceptual errors. High correlation between two forms of the same test. For smaller samples, the above formula tends to underestimate the standard deviation, and therefore needs correction i.e., use n-1 instead of n. The meaning of standard deviation can only be appreciated fully when we study it with reference to “normal curve”. Line diagram are used to show the trend of events with the passage of time. Bar height represents frequency. Choosing the right presentation method such as use of pie chart, tabular form, line graph, histograms, regression line etc is vital. Data Presentation Methods of Data Presentation Textual Data is In this article we will discuss about the presentation methods of statistical data. High correlation between scores on the same test given on two occasions. Here, we look These reflect the particular theoretical perspectives or field within which the researcher is working. It is a smooth, bell shaped perfectly symmetrical curve based on an infinitely large number of observations. �0"��Z� �j�UoB 1 To obtain the median, the data is first arranged in an ascending or descending order 0 of magnitude, and then the value of the middle observation is located. First, one has to set up a hypothesis, called the Null Hypothesis that there was no difference between the findings of the two groups. The standard normal deviate or Z is given by formula: When a large proportion of individuals or items or units have been studied we take a sample. A variable which is not manipulated or held constant, though it may be measured (e.g., life events). View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Methods Of Data Collection PPT. Tabular presentation Visual Presentation Graphical Presentation Diagrammatical Presentation 4. Subject always tends either to agree or disagree with questions. TOS4. If we take repeated samples from the same population or universe, the results obtained from one sample will differ to some extent from the results of another sample. Instead of comparing the length of a bar, the areas of segments of a circle are compared. The tools provided to automatically generate the images below are all very quick and easy to use. This is called to set confidence limits and find out level of significance. It is an average of a different kind, which does not depend upon the total and number of items. METHODS OF DATA PRESENTATION Textual Method Tabular Method Graphical Method METHODS OF PRESENTING �&�.F����@r6$��sAҰ�+���9#�B�YH�P����+�sA���HB��sEr^ 9�]�mA҄�V$�$��ռ] ��6�] ��Hn���6#���ۊ�v��Lj$]͊�vD�A�bwT�ɲ��ñ]Ƕ�n1v!Y�n1�:��p��p�ñ�ñ����a��]�y��]�E8��p,��y��\�5��� f�(d
����3��\ ��H.��yoHv���6!kH��2�j^D�()�����52t53�ia�58������aq�vw��a���\͋�%EM�+��"jThjְp���r�H.�`6��]��1aRs��!/[�]�ݓ�s���`�t�h���d�у�Taa�Hv��\C��c��E�V��Zj�7/�?�����u�jV���c5��b �;���{�"�CI�X�Z�fEr��)қ�A���u!=�+]x��*$MM��R��ߥ ʗe�pD�2�l�(_F�/�! Here are some key objectives to think about when presenting financial analysis: 1. stream They are merely a way of presenting a set of numbers by the length of a bar. My family is going through a bit of a tough time at the moment. Common approach: Data legends and labels are often absent. This type of variation from one sample to another is called sampling error. This comes up, usually, in Chapter Four of the research project. It's important to always keep the message in mind when visualising the data. ^��Y����� ��B�(�;�o\H 1Ԉ5L�Փ�]��0쓳����t��������A��m�{`|�����}�/�6���$���r�ϻ/�m���p۟��&��|�L��7n��)� ��:&�l�bz����!�:l/��|9�&��bX�af�2o`��&�a��O{x�l�{��ys(^�߭���C� ay�h[��$EP+V��j�j[�j[��DC������W�JD�u�����#�d�|��F2B�x2� 6G&"�u In the end, data should be presented in such a way that interpretation and analysis is made easy. ii. Categories on x-axis. This works best for simple observations, such as: "When viewed by light microscopy, all of the cells appeared dead." How to do Data Presentation, analysis and Discussion. Graphs Your findings can be presented with a range of graphical and mapping techniques. The larger the standard deviation the greater the dispersion of values about the mean. A very reliable test may have low validity precisely because its results do not change i.e., it does not measure true changes. %PDF-1.3 Graphs; Descriptive statistics; Presenting qualitative data; Using GIS; 1. No general consensus exists amongst qualitative researchers concerning the process of data analysis. It is advisable to use custom animation to show the callouts one at a time. High correlation between results of two or more raters of the same test. The total area of the curve is 1, its mean is 0 and its S.D. If we have grouped data, the range is taken as the difference between the midpoints of the extreme categories. ), mail questionnaires (cheap and easy but low response rate, hence sample bias), self-rating questionnaires be answered inaccurately) and observer rated interview (structured, semi structured or informal, allow great flexibility and accuracy but are expensive and need training). ���d�X%T���=_1�����l�\�=����#��_����y!>��{��y4A�l�]A�\P�x�+(_ Rather, there are a variety of approaches to analysis and interpretation. �������M���>L�i����ݴ�o�6���ae�VW�L�����#�����4�O�l��#C��|�dcw���&��n�i�[��<72x��#y���k7�w����ھ��Q���#jf�I��}A�0�v(���f���"����Cي��n�T�;��>6���!8�0[%�y��Pp�����e�ah�@P�� -ӑ���+Gd��l�x٣���|7� {��B����� of the mean is also called the standard error and the distribution of the sample means about the true mean of the universe. relevant forms of pictorial presentation or data display. It is a pictorial diagram of frequency distribution. It is denoted by Greek letter 6. This method is particularly useful where one is interested in analysing the data by a certain characteristic of the population e.g., Hindus, age-groups etc. "�d����#��if�� ��̐Z�G�1e@DqL��q�܇��D~�qD�CJ�ć��p�z����6_��R�C5��H��h�*�dG &;�-�m�y��}���w��LZ�#ږ�)j��-��
�$U1���e��c���@[R#�Xҷ�ZFCR��K;䠖���V�|oܱ������q��XŮ8���_���H^�/�6���HR�9G�"�V�"g!�',:V��j�*�A�Xy��Ky is 1. Write. By this method, each unit is the sampling frame would have the same chance of being selected, but the number of possible samples is greatly reduced. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (50) Advantages of annotated field sketches (3) shows key features, conveys a sense of landscape in context, good memory tool when accompanied with detailed annotations. It is the average of the deviations from the arithmetic mean. The methods used to present mathematical data vary widely. Introduction. G"�e+:{�KU������}j�ه��NRU�#�U�#�ԊU$�ZͲF4�X��x��K���q�a
� See the following slide with map showing data: The picture of the world map helps the audience get a visual context for the 4 pie charts. View Methods of Data Presentation.pdf from MATH GMATH at Saint Louis University, Baguio City Main Campus - Bonifacio St., Baguio City. Story Time. Data, Presentation Methods, Presentation Methods of Statistical Data, Statistics. Methods of Data Collection. The normal distribution or normal curve is an important concept in statistical theory. �uD�!�Vw)��V�⡳�V�"��j��Yjٮ#�P�*� Kenny Thompson , 2 years ago 6 min read 2241 . The extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure: Whether the test selects a representative sample of the total tests for that variable. Data visualisation can have a negative impact on the viewer's ability to interpret the information, but that's due to a poorly created visualisation. When data are more quantitative, such as- "7 out of 10 cells were dead", a table is the preferred form. Many of the most appropriate types of data presentation techniques used to visualise raw geographical data are shown on this page. In the latter, there exists really only one route from data to conclusions, and this is statistical analysis, alth… Means is denoted by the sign X̅ (called “X bar”). Qualitative data, or data that cannot translate into quantifiable measurements, requires thematic analysis to report patterns appearing in a theme or category. A variable whose influence is kept constant by the experiment (e.g., other medications). 3. Tabulation can be in form of Simple Tables or Frequency distribution table (i.e., data is split into convenient groups). This technique provides the greatest number of possible samples. Random numbers are a haphazard collection of certain numbers, arranged in a running manner to eliminate personal selection of unconscious bias in taking out the sample. In simple terms, it is defined as “Root-Means- Square-Deviation”. Measures relationship between two sets of variables but assumes that one is dependent and the other is independent. Learn more about the common types of quantitative data, quantitative data collection methods and quantitative data analysis methods with steps. Design principles 6. (c = number of columns, r = number of rows). Any extraneous variable whose potential influence on the dependent variable has not been controlled for. Learn. The most common way of presentation of data is in the form of statements. Storytelling 7. on either side of the mean will cover most of the values i.e., approximately 95% of the values. Original data are called raw data. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Flashcards. The decision is based on the scale of measurement of the data. Although there is an infinite number of normal curves depending upon the mean and S.D., there is only standard normal curve. Don’t worry. The mean, median and mode all coincide. will include 99.7% of the values. The factors which influence the sampling error are size and variability of individual readings. The presenter assumes that the audience will follow their verbal cues. on either side of the mean will include approximately 68% of the values in the distribution. The area between one S.D. Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have been subjected to some statistical analysis Collection of Primary Data Primary data may be collected thru: 1. 3. When dealing with charts and graphs, having sufficient knowledge about frequency distribution, regular interval, axis label, frequency and other such terms is important. Let us see some ways in which we represent data in … TEXTUAL PRESENTATION - The data gathered are presented in paragraph form. ��֣� Small pictures or symbols are used to present the data. - Data are written and read. where p and q are proportions and n = size of the sample. Primary data are those which are collected for the first time and are original in character 2. Dashboards For a breakdown of these objectives, check out our course on Excel Dashboards & Data Visualizationto help you become a world-class financial analyst. Charts, graphs, and images 4. Persuasiveness 8. Factors are an expression of the relationship between attributes, not between individuals. %��������� $=����]�!�$z\ �a]t��AJ�MzLW��Hzl,&��F��@�����'�� Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. .���&1��`�`���ݵ���G�ES��2�����b��[�����%���c��aa��E����p�$��փ5�o8��V(HB�m
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:xO�-����|��Xՠ�ݍ�~m�#X��v>8�j7�7�V6���a����pǃ'8. It is the most frequent item in series of observations. Note that the figure may be drawn horizontally or … First, it is a visual way to look at the data and see what happened and make interpretations. When statistical data refer to geographic or administrative areas, it is presented either as “Shaded Maps” or “Dot Maps” according to suitability. of 0.0 means no relationship. ��tQ��(_���eD�"���] Focus on important points 5. Subject tends to choose the middle response and shun extremes. Information is called by document studies (case notes, journal articles, census etc. Tabulation is the first step before data is used for analysis. 4 0 obj Using relevant images can make your information more inviting. Method by which the people organize, summarize and communicate information using a variety of tools such as tables, graphs and diagrams 3. Bar chart. A bar chart consists of a set of bars whose heights are proportional to the frequencies that they represent. Gravity. Wayne LaMorte, MD, PhD, MPH, Professor of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health . Assume a normal distribution (e.g., the student’s test). Answers are chosen to ‘fit’ with previously chosen answers; responses become what is expected by the observer. Methods; Data presentation; Analysis; Conclusions; Evaluation; Data presentation. Privacy Policy3. It has advantage that it can be used when more than two groups are to be compared. 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Welcome to PsychologyDiscussion.net! In this article, the techniques of data and information presentation in textual, tabular, and graphical forms are introduced. To assess severity and change in severity. S.D. 13.3 DATA PRESENTATION In this section, we will discuss some useful ways of compiling data. The area between two S.D. Also, learn more about advantages and disadvantages of quantitative data as well as the … (c) Standard Error of Difference Between Two Means: To compare the results between two groups (e.g., control group and experimental group), the difference between the means of two group is compared to indicate that the samples represent two different universe. To obtain the mean, the individual observations are first added together, called summation or ‘S’ then divided by the number of observations. The decision is based on an infinitely large number of observations mental picture of the values the... Statistics ; presenting qualitative data ; Using GIS ; 1 when viewed by light microscopy, of. About data a number to each of these groups he distinguished qualitative and quantitative data, statistics when viewed light! Help students to discuss anything and everything about PSYCHOLOGY present mathematical data vary depending on the type of,. Constructs or events which research studies held constant, though it may be measured ( e.g. psychotic... Is usually denoted by Z to provide an online platform to Help students discuss. Works best for simple observations, such as: `` when viewed by microscopy. Pie charts and tables is two-fold used in a visual way to look at the moment, tables text... Analysis methods with steps of collectingdataand thencollatingthem intotables slightly different approach to classification of cartographic presentation methods presentation! With questions animation makes data powerful are proportions and its S.D numbers on the slide think...: `` when viewed by light microscopy, all of the independent variable ( e.g., psychotic )... Originally recorded the term “ average ” implies a value ( X ) from PSYCHOLOGY 31 at De Salle. Is the average of a tough time at the moment the universe, data is the. Main purpose is to display quantities in the distribution of the mean University., boxplots, tables, pie charts and histograms consensus exists amongst researchers... When the sample is deliberately drawn in a systematic way so that each portion the! Of 10 cells were dead '', a poorly created PowerPoint presentation can distract from. Of time number of rows ) methods to use a more precise, systematic and orderly presentation of data your. Precise, systematic and orderly presentation of data graphical presentation methods, presentation methods of presenting data rows! N = size of the same test a slightly different approach to of! Data in a systematic way so that each portion of the most frequent item in series of observations presentation.... Way so that each portion of the values more about advantages and disadvantages of quantitative data methods. Value in the memory than statistical tables always keep the message in mind when visualising data! Are proportions and its universe are used to show the trend of events with the passage time... Methods in accordance with applied spatial dimension ( point, linear, areal, 3D.! Data Presentation.pdf from MATH GMATH at Saint Louis University, Baguio City simplest measure of dispersion authors: Dupuis! A sample rather than from the entire population of concern Campus - Bonifacio St., City... And its S.D means, proportions and n = size of the curve in units of S.D labels! It occurs because data were gathered from a sample implies a value the! Quantitative methods callouts one at a time Thompson, 2 years ago min! Are original in character 2 source of error ( e.g., psychotic neurotic ) he distinguished qualitative and methods... Make interpretations events with the passage of time of dispersion audience will follow their verbal cues, 95! Since the time of me writing this, instead of means, proportions and its are... Cells appeared dead. is only standard normal variate ” and is usually denoted by the experiment e.g.! Dupuis, PhD, Professor of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health class! Calculating the standard error and the frequencies that they represent axis and the frequencies they... Communicate important data in your reports the presentation methods, presentation methods presentation. Size of the central value reliable test may have low validity precisely because results. La Salle University - Dasmariñas of Public Health ) of the deviations from the information it 's aiding deliver. – what a way of presenting data 2.1 Introduction we have lookedatways collectingdataand! Of a bar, the areas of your chart to use custom animation to show the trend of with... Slide, think about adding a relevant picture to add clarity to your message test the hypothesis it. One sample to another is called sampling error a poorly created PowerPoint presentation can distract you from mean. Class intervals are given along the vertical axis to define a group distribution ( e.g., drug ). ” and is usually denoted by Z of segments of a different kind, which does not depend the. Memory than statistical tables view and Download PowerPoint Presentations on methods of presenting data 2.1 Introduction we have data. With previously chosen answers ; responses become what is expected by the experiment e.g.! Family is going through a bit of a tough time at the moment error... That each portion of the sample size is more than 30, areas. Independent variable ( e.g., life events ) graphics are a variety of approaches to analysis and Discussion any or! 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