There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers. Monte Cassino Monastery is located on the top of one of the hills (519 m above sea level) of the Central Apennine. St. Benedict (see Subiaco) established his first monastery here.The monastery was constructed on the site of the pagan temple of Apollo and St. Benedict's first act was to smash the sculpture of Apollo and destroy the altar. The Abbey of Monte Cassino is charming in its timeless beauty and a marvellous place to engage in prayer and meditation. No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction. Other articles where Battle of Monte Cassino is discussed: Cassino: …German resistance in three savage battles. Monte Cassino became a model for future developments. Monte Cassino (today usually spelled Montecassino) is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m (1,706.04 ft) altitude. The Gustav Line stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome. Two German paratroopers fighting among the ruins of the Monastery. The Battle of Monte Cassino (also called the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a battle during the Italian Campaign of World War II. 57th Field Regiment, RA ? A Sherman tank can be seen in the background. Its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance. Maximilian Becker (a Protestant), both from the Panzer-Division Hermann Göring, had them transferred to the Vatican at the beginning of the battle. Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there is Erchempert, whose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century Mezzogiorno. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church, even receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors. According to accounts, "Benedict died in the oratory of St. Martin, and was buried in the oratory of St. , The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino which was first settled in the fifth century B.C. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood. A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Chronica monasterii Cassinensis by Leo of Ostia and Amatus of Monte Cassino gives us our best source on the early Normans in the south. " Scholars note that this striking contrast is not stressed by Gregory but rather both settings are portrayed as part of a single battle account against the same demonic enemy. The focus increasingly shifted to a particularly conspicuous mountain that dominated the countryside for miles around: the commanding heights of Monte Cassino, which was crowned with a magnificent Benedictine monastery that possessed a fortress-like appearance. Within the centuries the Abbey has met magnificence and destruction many times, and has always come out of its ruins stronger. "The abbot in his wisdom decided that great number of young monks in the monastery should be thoroughly initiated in these arts" – says the chronicler about the role of the Greeks in the revival of mosaic art in medieval Italy. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. The abbey has been badly damaged and restored several times throughout its history, including most recently in a major battle in 1944. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529. De Vogue writes "this mountain had to be conquered from an idolatrous people and purified from its devilish horrors. , Another account, however, from Kurowski ("The History of the Fallschirmpanzerkorps Hermann Göring: Soldiers of the Reichsmarschall"), notes that 120 trucks were loaded with monastic assets and art which had been stored there for safekeeping. It was the Volsci who first built a citadel on the summit of Monte Cassino. Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino. In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the Rule of Saint Benedict was composed. We pulled out of Cassino on my 20th birthday, 26th of … So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine and science in the Middle Ages, and with his life and work St. Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire. ", Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict at Monte Cassino is seen by scholars as the final setting for an epic set in motion at Subiaco.  In the early 1950s, President of the Italian Republic Luigi Einaudi gave considerable support to the rebuilding. Home An Introduction Armies Campaigns & Battles The Burma Campaign UK Book Store . Monte Cassino (sometimes called Montecassino) is a rocky hill, around 81 km southeast of Rome in the Latin Valley. 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