Earn CEs. Sympathomimetic drug that mimics the action of the sympathetic nervous system. three most common risk factors which predispose one for thrombosis. C. 2% Full thickness burns in the left knee area, A 5-year-old presents with dilated pupils, tachycardia, hot flushed skin, agitation, diminished bowel sounds, urinary retention, and hallucinations after ingesting several tiotropium (Spiriva) inhalation powder capsules. A nurse who wishes to obtain the Certified Emergency Nurse (CEN) credential must take and pass the CEN exam which is administered by the Board of Certification of Emergency Nursing (BCEN). Learn cfrn with free interactive flashcards. A temperature spike may be seen a few hours after the appendix has ruptured. Trivia Quiz. 1900 Spring Road, Suite 501 Oak Brook, IL 60523 Phone: +1-877-302-BCEN(2236) Fax: +1-630-596-8250 Email: bcen@bcen.org The CEN®, CFRN®, CPEN® and … A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects all the lining of the digestive tract. The Ankle Brachial Index is the ratio of the blood pressure in the lower legs to the blood pressure in the arms. The first of the stages of shock is reversible, but there aren't any signs to indicate shock at this stage. The free questions were good so I upgraded. A measure of serum urea, a by-product of the breakdown of blood, muscle and protein. Request a demo Learn how The CEN Predictor Exam Is A Comprehensive Online Practice Exam That Includes – 175 Online Practice Questions, 5 CEU’s & The Most Current CEN Exam Updates. To be eligible for the CEN exam, an individual must hold a current, unrestricted Registered Nurse license in the United States or its territories. Which serum level(s), followed serially, best predict patient outcome? Raise your score by familiarizing yourself with the CEN. It is important to understand the stages of shock in order to recognize and prevent the progression to this final stage. CNE Practice Test If you’re going into nursing education, then getting Certified Nurse Educator certification may be a step you want to take. 8 Test Prep Tips How you prepare for a test can be the difference between a low score and a Learn cen with free interactive flashcards. A patient with a hand wound caused by a high-pressure paint gun is awaiting surgical wound exploration. However, our healthcare test prep isn’t like other study materials. Cellular function continues to deteriorate, anaerobic metabolism leads to increased metabolic acidosis, and the compensatory mechanisms can no longer maintain the balance required to protect the organs. Free CEN Exam Practice Questions Q.1 You are caring of an old lady patient whose spouse passed on six months prior. When you call the ambulance because of an emergency the first medical practitioner that sees you is the emergency nurse and they are charged with providing immediate and effective medical care, and performing emergency medical procedures as needed to stabilize patients. loses the ability to have normal thought process, thought process that occurs w/distraction by environment and leaps from one thought to another unrelated thought, thought process that occurs when a pt uses roundabout way to connect thoughts to original topic, thought process that occurs when a pts thoughts have very little association between them, provides pathway for afferent and efferent impulses to travel; outer layer, provides sensory perception and cord reflexes; interior of cord (surrounded by white matter). ENA’s CEN Online Review course helps experienced registered nurses prepare for the Certified Emergency Nursing (CEN) exam at their own pace, anywhere. Surprisingly, there may also be an initial relief of The mechanical obstruction leads to impaired filling of the heart with blood. Beneficial for, When does an uncal herniation become life threatening, An uncal herniation becomes life threatening when a brainstem compression occurs, or when a hemorrhage occurs, Frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe, Minor airway symptoms with no fractures, simple hematomas, and small lacerations, Compromised airway with no cartilage exposure, minor mucosal disruption, hematoma, swelling or edema, Compromised airway with exposed cartilage, vocal cord immobility, mucosal tears, and massive swelling or edema, Most severe: Compromised airway with exposed cartilage, vocal cord immobility, mucosal tears and massive swelling or edema. Preoperatively, the emergency nurse will monitor the patient for the development of. Cells begin to change due to issues with perfusion and oxygenation. You can succeed on the CEN test and become a Certified Emergency Nurse (CEN) by learning critical concepts on the test so that you are prepared for as many questions as possible. Online Prep Course Available Offered in partnership with MindEdge Learning, this prep course allows candidates to prepare for the IAEM Certification process through a self-study at your own pace. ! Our top test prep tool just got even better. Supporting clinical excellence in emergency environments with expert, proven online courses Elsevier Clinical eLearning emergency nursing courses are professionally-designed, interactive, and self-paced. Free practice tests and other test resources organized in 300 categories including: academic, career, personality, intelligence, and more. Special Enrollment Examination (SEE) Preparation & Registration Our extensive course is designed to cover all of the topics you can expect to be tested on when sitting for the SEE. B. Initiate aggressive external cooling measures. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. When you purchase and take one of our practice exams To compliment our CEN book and course, we also offer extensive flashcards for even more CEN exam prep help. -> Apply monitor, obtain EKG (w/in 10min), IV, O2, meds (nitro/morphine/antihypertensive), 30% of MIs, occlusion of small coronary artery or partial occlusion of large artery, no elevation on 12 lead, may have ST depression or T wave inversion, trop may not be initially bumped (reason for serial troponins), 40-50% of all MIs, 40% of pts w/inferior STEMI will have right ventricular infarction, 20% of pts w/inferior STEMI will develop significant bradycardia due to second/third degree AV block, worst prognosis of all infarct locations (larger infarct size). Participating in Study Anywhere, Anytime. Sign in to your account to access your exam history and continue tracking your studies. Two years’ experience is recommended but not required. Are you studying to be a certified emergency nurse? Start studying CEN PRACTICE QUESTIONS. breathing, n/v, abd cramps, paralysis, pain increases as fluoric ions deeping into skin, penetrating to bone (fluoric ions attracted calcium), TB; measles; chickenpox; smallpox; herpes zoster, Meningococcus; influenza, respiratory viruses, starts as dull pain to periumbillical area, progresses to RLQ, low grade fever, n/v, **sudden pain relief may indicate rupture, rebound tenderness @McBurney's Point, inflammation of the gallbladder; sudden onset epigastric pain radiating to RUQ, pain on palp w/rebound tenderness, pain to right subclavicular, mild jaundice, Murphy's sign, place pressure on ruq, then ask pt to inhale. Any condition that fills the thoracic cavity with fluid, tissue or air can lead to obstructive shock, Three of the most common causes of obstructive shock, Cardiac tamponade, pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, May be effective for poisoning a that are life threatening. Take up the quiz below and see how ready you are for the CNE exam. slowly rewarm in warm (98.6-104) for 10-30, do not thaw if possibility of rewarming, prevent thrombus (tpa/asa), shivering, dizziness, increased respirations, trouble speaking, slight confusion, lack of coordination, fatigue, increased HR, afib, shivering stops (<95f), brady (<90f), osbourn waves (aka J waves), slurred/mumbled speech, confusion, progressive LOC, decreased RR, spontaneous VF (<86f), increased in presence of blood clots; indicator for PE/DVTs, ascending paralysis, parasthesia/itchy skin, altered LOC, SOA/dyspnea, scrub wound w/betadine, human rabies Immune Globulin, admin 20IU/kg *full dose should be infiltrated surrounding wound, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, facial weakness b/l, diplopia/blurred vision, ptosis, dif. Insertion: nasal edge of eyeball in front of its equator. We ll make and sandoz politics literature honoring essay ellis philosophy your classmates to read paper. The exams also check the knowledge of candidates on topics like respiratory system, gynecology and neurology. A pool maintenance worker has an alkaline hand burn. C. BSA calculations do not predict electrical burn fluid needs. CEN Exam is a comprehensive exam set up on topics that are related to emergency nursing and medicine. Urea is cleared by the kidney; diseases that compromise renal function lead to increased BUN. The same authentic test-taking experience you expect from BCEN now has even more value. Associated with vascular smooth muscle are a large number of alpha1 receptors relative to beta2 receptors. These findings suggest, After spraying pesticides all day, a farmhand walks into the ED complaining of diaphoresis, productive cough, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The entire palmar surface of both hands is charred and dry. During the compensatory stage of shock, the body tries to reverse the results of the initial stage. Occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, least common, left circumflex coronary artery, HTN, smoking, ETOH, genetics, atherosclerosis, Abd pain radiating to back, ripping/shearing pain, may have palpable mass in abd, IV, monitor, O2, labs, type & screen (for OR), minimize pain, permissive hypotension (SBP 80-90, no higher), antihypertensives, Cardiopulmonary Arrest: Reversible Causes (Hs), Hypoxia, hypoglycemia, hydrogen Ion (acidosis), hypovolemia (prefer warm to prevent further acidosis), hypo/hyper-kalemia (KCL, or D50/insulin/CaGl), hypothermia, Cardiopulmonary Arrest: Reversible Causes (Ts), Trauma, Toxins, tension pneumothorax (14/16g to second rib space at midclavicular line), pericardial tamponade, thrombus, IV, monitor, O2 (atropine 0.5mg IVP, EKG, TCP), fluid in the pericardium, will result in a low BP, muffled heart sounds, weak pulse as the heart struggles to pump, likely jugular vein distention, Pericardiocentesis, fluids, Abx, pressors, Inability of the heart to adequately supply blood to meet metabolic demands of tissues, tachycardia, weak pulses, low CO, HTN, JVD, cardiomegaly, peripheral edema, dyspnea, crackles/rales, nocturnal dyspnea, AMS or lethargy, peripheral edema, hepatomegaly, JVD, increased CVP, hemoptysis, progressive SOA, crackles, increased PAP, IV, monitor, O2, CPAP (changes pressures inside chest to push fluid out of lungs; decreases preload/afterload), Nitro, Morphine, inflammation of the pericardium, viral infection, inflammation of inner layer of heart, usually bacterial, detrimental to heart valves, Dx: Ankle/brachial index (ABI), treadmill exercise test, angiography, ultrasonography. CEN Ultimate Certification Test For Nurses! D. Irrigate with tap water until skin pH is normal. To help with review for the CEN exam (08/2009) Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Maximize your results! Nerve: oculomotor (CN III). A. Repetition and thorough preparation is a process that rewards those who are serious about being prepared, which means that succeeding on the CEN test is within the reach of virtually anyone … Resulting from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissues common to scuba diving (aka decompression sickness), Chronic cough greater than 2 to 3 weeks, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, fevers and chills, Obstructive shock is caused by the obstruction of the great vessels of the heart. Mydriasis pupils, normo BP, increased HR, decreased RR & temp, mimic the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system - aka parasympathomimetic (releasing/responding to acetylcholine), Mydriasis pupils, increased HR, RR, BP and temp, blocks parasympathetic nerve impulses; decreases oral and respiratory secretions (atropine, Artane), Pain located in the vicinity of articulating joints. infectious bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the cause of 85% of all gastroenteritis cases. JONATHAN MEDINA Army … You might think this is just another practice test book. The stages of shock will eventually lead to the refractory stage if the cause of shock cannot be fixed. urgency; low grade fever; suprapubic pain; hematuria; prostate tenderness; urinary retention, infection of the kidney and renal pelivs; severe flank/back pain @ costovertebral angle; fever/chills; n/v; frequency; dysuria/nocturia; pyuria, hematuria, bacteriuria, a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles; progressive, painless swelling, inability to pull retracted foreskin over head of penis; painful/swelling ~ pressing on head of penis while pushing foreskin forward may reduce swelling; if this fails - prompt surgical circumcision, surgical emergency that requires intervention w/in 6 hrs, intense itching, small red bumps and rash 4-6 weeks after contact, Women: most women show no signs; some vag discharge, dysuria, pain w/sex, frequency, Pain in left shoulder resulting from intraperitoneal blood irritating the diaphragm or ruptured spleen, high flow o2, abx, OR if ruptured, methotrexate if unruptured, HTN, abluminuria, oliguria, edema, weight gain, visual changes, h/a, nausea, RUQ pain, increased deep tendon reflexes w/clonus, severe variant of eclampsia; (H) hemolysis; (EL) elevated liver enzymes; (LP) low platelet, sudden painless bleeding, bright red blood, maternal hemorrhagic shock, backache, painful uterine contractions, uterine rigidity, sudden abd pain, frank, dark red bleeding, maternal hemorrhagic shock, knee to chest position, high flow O2, elevate fetal head to relieve pressure on cord, feel for pulsation, immediate cesarean, HR >160 or <110, no HR accelerations present, periodic HR decels, no beat-to-beat variability, decreased fetal mvmt, blockage of duct of bartholin gland, possible infection and abcess development, A solid or fluid-filled sac or pocket (cyst) within or on the surface of an ovary, confusion, h/a, high fever, hypotension, h/v, organ failure, redness of eyes/mouth/throat, sz, red rash that looks like sunburn w/skin peeling 1-2 weeks after rash, motile, pear-shaped, flagellated trichomonads; elevated pH; strawberry cervix, dislocation: complete disruption of bony articulating surface, injury to ligament that has been stretched/torn by excessive force, tearing/stretching of muscle or tendon as a result of excessive force, wrap in sterile dressing (w/NS only), then place in plastic bag over crushed ice, Pain out of proportion to injury, not easily relieved, ischemic contracture secondary to serve elbow injury associated with supracondylar humerus fracture, compression of lumbosacral nerve root below conus medullaris, soak injury; d/c instruction: soak wound 2-3 times/days for 2-4 days, 2, 4, 6 and 18 months, 4 and 6 yrs and a booster at 16, caused by compression of gas: ruptured tympanic membranes; pneumo; air emboli; gastric intestinal rupture, caused by flying debris leaving blast site, blunt injuries caused by displacement of body from blast: fractures; closed head injuries, injuries not directly r/t the blast wave by secondary to effects of explosion: burns/crush/toxin inhalations, breakdown of muscle tissue that results in a release of substances (myoglbin, creatinine kinase, intramuscular electrolytes, dark brown urine (appears like hematuria, but no blood present); malaise; fever; muscle tenderness; renal failure, near respiratory centers in medulla; sensitive to hydrogen ion concentration; CO2 crosses BBB, combines w/H2O and dissociates into H+ ions; signals sent to respiratory center to increase rate and depth of ventilation, located in aortic arch and carotid bodies; sensitive primarily to O2 lvls; signals sent to respiratory center to increase ventilation, breaths increase/decrease in depth/rate w/periods of apnea, deep and fast (common after exercise); s/sx metabolic acidosis, irregular breathing w/apnea every 4-5 cycles; s/sx of increased intracranial pressure; seen in spinal meningitis, acute inflammation of bronchi and/or trachea, long-term cough w/mucus; air trapping and chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia "blue bloater"; smoking leading cause; inflammation w/fluid accumulations, A disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood, permanent enlargement of air spaces; alveolar walls destroyed causing less area for gas exchange, lodging of thrombus/other embolic material w/in pulmonary circulation; more than 90% of PE originates in deep venous system of lower extremities, three factors that predispose a pt to a PE, abnormal collection of fluid in pleural space; resulting from excess fluid production/decreased absorption, dyspnea, productive cough, pleuritic chest pain, rales/rhonchi, fever/chills, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension (sepsis), altered LOC, difficulty breathing, hemoptysis, diaphoretic, anxiety/pale, fluid overloaded, subclavian artery, lung apices, vertebral column or aortic injury, free floating section of rib cage; see paradoxical chest rise, air enters plural space by cant escape; collapses lung on injured side; pressure in chest increases over pressure in lungs and heart causing mediastinal shift, blood in pleural space; decreases lung volume, 'clothes line injury'; surgical intervention, herniation of abd contents into chest; surgical intervention, leads to decreased CO2 retention and alkalemia, displacement, obstruction, pneumothorax, equipment, increased systemic vascular resistance, poor skin turgor, thirst, oliguria, low systemic and pulmonary preloads and rapid HR, caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone, decreased CO/coronary perfusion; anuria/renal ischemia; pulmonary edema/lung ischemia; DIC; multi-organ failure, acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity, fatigue, lethargy, swelling, soz, tachypnea, poor color, weak pulses, non-productive wet cough, murmur, crackles in lung bases, JVD, hepatomegaly, goals: increase contractility, increase CO, increases cardia and systemic perfusion, cardiac tamponade (ventricles cant fill), PE (left heart cant get blood from lungs), aortic changes (left heart cant get blood OUT -> stenosis/dissection), tension pneumothorax (left heart cant get blood out the aorta/right heart cant get blood from the vena cava), tachypnea, muffled heart sounds, jvd, smaller ekg complexes on monitor, weak pulses, soa, dyspnea, tachypnea, weak/absent pulses, syncope, ekg changes, s/sx obstructive shock: aortic dissection, weak/absent pulses, swever chest pain, vacillating blood pressure, BP different in RUE than LUE, widened mediastinum on XR, s/sx obstructive shock: tension pneumothorax, tachypnea, dyspnea, soa, tachycardia, decreased/absent breath sounds, jvd, tracheal deviation, lack of SNS vasomotor response below lvl of spinal injury causes vasodilation, venous pooling, decreased preload, decreased CO, fluid loss into extravascular and extracellular spaces, vasodilation, decreased preload, decreased CO, vasodilation from inflammation, endotoxins, fluid loss into extravascular spaces, decreased preload, decreased CO, loss of SNS stimuli (pipes too big -> vasodilation), acute, sever allergic reaction; due to release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines from mast cells and basophils, typically d/t immunologic reaction, soft tissue swelling, stridor, hypotension, pruritus/rash, organ injury/damage occurring in response to infection, leads to dangerously low BP and abnormalities in cellular metabolism, RR > 20; WBC ct < 4,000 or >12,000; tachycardia; fever >38c (100.4f) or <34 (96.8f); AMS; increased lactate; increased base deficit; acidosis; hypotension, RBCs, WBCs, platelets, plasma and clotting factors, water, plasma, proteins and clotting factors; expands blood volume, albumin and globulin in a saline solution; expands blood volume. composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections (or axons), which connect various gray matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons. Perfusion is the method used by arteries to deliver blood to capillary beds in body tissues. This causes an increased rate of breathing which, in turn, may help to get more oxygen flowing to the cells and neutralize the newly acidic conditions. Disruption of anterior larynx, unstable fractures, two or more fracture lines, or sever mucosal injuries, Cardiac index of a Patient with subclinical hypoperfusion, Cardiac index of a patient with clinical hypoperfusion, [ (2 x diastolic) + systolic ] divided by 3, 'Rest and digest', the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy, (RTA) is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine (alkaline urine, serum acidosis), tx for pt suffering from a hypoglycemia crisis, give 10 to 15g of carbohydrates (1c milk, 8 small sugar cubes, 3 tsp honey, 1/2c orange juice), occurs when the body loses water and salt, heat-related emergency that occurs when body loses fluids and electrolytes wen sweating. Choose from 191 different sets of cfrn flashcards on Quizlet. Learn CEN Exam Review Trivium Test Prep with free interactive flashcards. If the stages of shock progress to the third stage before the initial cause is corrected, damages become more severe and can be irreversible. A nursing certificate that is the equivalent of a Registered Nurse license is also acceptable. too many letters, too much water! He was working in the garage 2hrs ago, with the child nearby, and noted she was sitting in a puddle of antifreeze. Causative agent of shigella are four subspecies of the genus Enterobacteriaceae. Spread via fecal-oral route. rash that is red or reddish brown and may contain penny-sized sores, age, race, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, tobacco, diet (salt use), stress, prolonged injury resulting in death of tissue, Chest pain/discomfort (pressure, tightness), pain/discomfort radiating, SOB, dizzy/lightheaded, nausea, diaphoresis, age, gender, race, hyperlipidemia, HTN, smoking, DM, obesity, oral contraceptives, sedentary lifestyle, stress, ABCs!!! which exerts pressure on the heart and limits ventricular filling causing a decrease in cardiac output. Choose from 27 different sets of CEN Exam Review Trivium Test Prep flashcards on Quizlet. View CEN -2012-001-USCENTCOM Moderate Risk of Isolation Theater Preparation Brief (FOUO) (1 hr) from PHYS 261 at Louisiana State University, Shreveport. Quizlet makes simple learning tools that let you study anything. Our top test prep tool just got … the P waves are not disassociated with the QRS complex. Try our free CEN Practice Exam below written by CEN experts.Your results will be scored automatically and will display your strengths and weaknesses. Get ready for the CEN exam with free CEN practice test questions and prepare for the real thing. We hope you enjoy our products! numb and pale or blue, necrotic, gangrenous and edematous, numb and non-pliable and is pale w/blue coloring, edema and blisters filled w/blood, decreased sensation and contains erythema, edema and blisters, decreased sensation and is pale or red w/possible waxy appearance. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. generally caused by STI such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. Take the CEN Practice Exam – take this at the start to determine your weak areas, and again as your final pretest before the real thing! CEN-2012-001 USCENTCOM Moderate Risk of Isolation Theater Preparation Brief (FOUO) (1 hr) In response to the USCENTCOM J3 validated requirement, the Joint Knowledge Online (JKO) and Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) have collaborated on a computer based / advanced distributed learning (CBT/ADL) product, USCENTCOM Moderate Risk of Isolation (MRI) Theater Preparation Brief. Are you ready to take the next step in your career? In the absence of the vasoconstrictive effects of the SNS, afterload is decreased, as well as cardiac output, resulting in inadequate tissue perfusion, result of massive vasodilation that is caused by mediators being released during the inflammatory process, result of massive vasodilation that is caused by the release of histamines. A patient who consumed a large volume of acetaminophen in a suicide attempt presents 2 days after ingestion. Insert the needle through the subxiphoid approach on the left side under fluoroscopy. With our Advanced Smart Learning Technology, you can master the learning materials quickly by studing, practicing and playing at lunch, between classes or while waiting in line. On examination, the child is ataxic and her speech is slurred. Which of the following is the priority intervention? formed by the metabolism of creatine, that is found in muscle tissue and blood and normally excreted in the urine as a metabolic waste; diseases that compromise renal function lead to increased BUN. Which of the accompanying movements by the patient demonstrates inadequate adapting? Anticipating fluid needs for this patient, the nurse knows. formation of a blood clot w/in deep vein, predominantly in legs, pain on passive dorsiflexion of the foot which may be indicative of thrombosis in the lower extremity, structure between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal cavity, oculomotor: pupil response, muscles of ciliary body, Trochlear: depresses eyeball, rotates laterally and intorts (rotates toward nose, Trigeminal: facial sensation, jaw mvmt (biting/chewing/swallowing), nasal pack, Merocel sponge, epistaxis ballon/tampon, tooth torn from socket - tissue hypoxia, necrosis of pulp, inflammation of cords, viral or bacterial, strep bacterial infxn. In a patient with acute onset gastrointestinal complaints, which items in the patient's history would suggest the culprit is food poisoning rather than another etiology? Pass the Certified Emergency Nurse (CEN®) Exam…the first time! Howeve… Rheumatic fever potential complication, An inflammatory disease; most common cause of acquired heart disease in children; usually affects the aortic and mitral valves of the heart; associated with an antecedent beta hemolytic strep-infection (not treated properly/fully), s/sx: dysphagia, drooling, muffled voice, pain with swallowing, fever, malaise, dehydration, spread of untreated dental ifxn or cellulitis into mandibular space; swelling of anterior/lateral neck; severe rep distress and airway obstruction, The clear tissue that covers the front of the eye. renal vasculature pathway of blood supply, peritubular capillary network leads to interlobular vein -> interlobular vein leads to arcuate vein -> arcuate vein leads to interlobar vein -> interlobar vein leads to renal vein -> renal vein empties into inferior vena cava, most abundant intracellular anion; essential for membrane structure, energy storage and transport in all cells. + sign is pt will suddenly stop breathing when diaphragm descends onto inflamed gall bladder, epigastric pain that radiates to back, n/v, fever, foul smelling fatty stool, fecal-oral (affects children most often) ~not a chronic infxn, Parenteral (blood-blood), vertical (mom-baby), sexual, Parenteral (blood-blood), affects adults primarily, chronic infxn, massive bleeding from upper gi, hx of etoh abuse or portal hypertension, hematemesis, melena, deterioration in mental /physical status, signs of shock, substernal pain worsens w/swallowing, occasional vomiting, weight loss, upper gi bleed, foul breath, tear on gastric side of gastroesophageal junction, which may extend to the distal esophagus; hematemesis, complete rupture at lower thoracic esophagus; hamman's sign (crunching sound upon auscultation of heart d.t pneumomediastinum; subQ emphysema, anorexia, fatigue, weight loss, bruises, jaundice, edema, light colored stools, confusion, loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, bruises, jaundice, edema, light colored stools, confusion, massive bleeding upper GI tract, Hx of ETOH abuse/or portal hypertension, hematemesis, melena, deterioration of mental/physical status, signs of shock, substernal pain worse w/swallosing, occasional vomiting, weight loss, upper GI bleed, foul breath, epigastric pain, n/v, gastric mucosal bleeding, epigastric tenderness on palp, h/a, anorexia, hiccuping, diarrhea, infectious diarrhea is self-limited, supportive care, oral rehydration is cornerstone of diarrhea tx, A sore that develops on the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or small intestine, weight loss, HCL normal or hyposecretion, pain 1/2 hr - 1hr after meals, vomiting, eating increases pain, physiological stress shock, Cushing's ulcer - brain injury, curlin's ulcer - extensive burns, most common, well noursihed, pain 2-3 hrs after meals, food may decrease pain, common precusor of gastritis and peptic ulcers; risk factor for gastric carcinoma, n/v fecal matter, crampy, wavelike, colicky pain; loud bowel sounds, abd distention, rectal blood/mucus w/out stool or gas; dehydration, the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon, belly pain, fever/chills, bloating/gas; diarrhea/constipation; n/v; anorexia, telescoping of a segment of the intestine; sudden abd pain, current jelly stool, fever, vomiting, chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea.