When I was writing this episode, I kept thinking, I need to move this theory to the top. This passage of Scripture proves that physical healing for the believer is a part of the atonement of Jesus Christ. 0000002735 00000 n should be a theologian. Im your host, Phylicia Masonheimer, an author, speaker and Bible teacher. What He said about the devil was that he cannot be allowed to have any rights over men. As one historian notes, it was not uncommon in late antiquity that marauding gangs would roam about capturing travelers and demanding payment for their release. There was also a very real sense of duality between good and evil that may seem very foreign to mainline and liberal Protestants today, if not contemporary Evangelicals. We burn them at the stake, and when that person is roasted, when that person is removed from the community, we then say, Look, we can have peace. This actually, in studying this theory, I thought, Oh, my goodness, how many times did we see this happen in 2020 online. You direct all of this anger, all this tension towards the group thats considered the bad guy, the scapegoat, and when that person is rejected by the whole community, they have peace. Like the ransom theory and the idea that Jesus paid God a ransom to free us from bondage, to free us from Satan. The debt is total, the obligation to pay it, total, the power to pay it, zero. The answer then is found in the sacrifice of Christ: fully human, he can atone for man, fully God, he can restore Gods honor. This is the idea that the atonement of Jesus is satisfaction or compensation for the Father. Gregory, when he wrote about this, he said that Satan obtained legal rights over man due to the fall. If you think about it in the way, Anselm was thinking about it, the slaves could never pay back the king. John Wesley, the UMC's founder wrote, "the death of Christ is 'a full, perfect and . Why would God have to pay Satan anything? NOTE TO READERS: Ive deliberately not included the names of theologians and writers quotedexcept for the major ones worth rememberingfor ease of reading. When this sacrifice happened, the justice of God was satisfied. In spite of the fact that Christian theology has found legitimate expression of the biblical emphasis on the atonement through a variety of theories, the Western Catholic and Protestant churches have tended to favor some form of a forensic penal view of the work of Christ. Progressive Christian, journalist and entrepreneur , the name for Bozo the Clown has originated. But it is effective for the salvation of those The last theory is moral influence theory. Every woman should be a student of the heart of God. However, I still think reading about it is interesting and helpful, because the theory is growing in popularity. It was combating a view of the atonement that arose in the 1500s. We do want to keep in mind that the vicarious atonement theory that Jesus is standing in for us that hes taking a penalty we deserved can possibly be held alongside other theories. In fact, the expression, What Would Jesus Do? was born out of these thoughts, popularized by the 1896 novel In His Steps(again, 1 Peter 2:22). And just as every theologian has a Bible passage in support of their ideas, so to do the exemplarists (another name for this theory is moral example), notably 1 Peter 2:22, For this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you should follow in his steps, as well as various passages in John (see John 13:1316 and John 15:917). Although Sanders concedes that there is indeed a mystery between Gods grace and human freedom. So, the focus of penal substitution really is on that punishment. What many peopledontknow is that this Instagram post wasnt a one-off postulation by an influencer. To be fair, most, if not all, of these theories tend to crumble when pressed too hard. I think all of us have been at a womens conference where we were told you are a beautiful daughter of the Most High King, and its true, but its not the whole truth. With the early church fathers, what can be tough is, they werent just stating, I hold to the ransom theory of the atonement. No, these things are in development. This podcast will help you embrace the history and depth of the Christian faith. No theory of atonement seems complete or absolutely correct, at least to human understanding. Louth points out how the arc from fall to redemption is subsumed in a larger arc from creation to deification. What Ren Girard and other scholars believe is that the gospels, and actually the whole Bible, present this tension. Most of the quotes cited come from two books: The Nature of Atonement: Four Views edited by James Beilby and Paul Eddy, InterVarsity Press, 2009, and Atonement Theories: A Way Through the Maze by Ben Pugh, Cascade Books, 2014. The heart of this theory is that violence is not salvific, this is according to Mark Heim again. But more generally, critics say moral influence theology doesnt answer the question, what do we need saved from? One theologian described the lack of an answer in moral influence atonement this way. We see Colossians 2, Hebrews 2. and Revelations 12, but do you have to hold to ransom theory? I have a couple of interesting articles for you on this. To avoid that, well, also honoring the atonement, you have government theory. The rest of society simply has to be convinced that Jesus is the problem. Fun aside: Boso is Anselms main foil in Cur Deus Homo, constantly getting it wrong and constantly being corrected by Anselm. In this new system, order in society was built on the idea that you owed somebody something. Johnson, Adam J (ed.). It goes even further back than the atonement. His death is such that all will see forgiveness is costly and will strive to cease from anarchy in a world God governs. In the end, what I realized was, there was no best theory to put first, because they all cross reference each other. Again, they would not have been using the exact terminology, and the terminology of Jesus paying the penalty for sin is just as prevalent as terminology for ransom and for satisfaction. My own sentiment is that the extent of the atonement is really an in-house Protestant debate, Louth and Levering both point out that this topic is not one normally germane to their own respective traditions, it is just not on their radar. Of course, for each theory one can find ample support in various Biblical passages, just like any other theological concept in Christianity. This theory, I would say, is one that often gets picked apart, today. God does not want to legitimate the act of scapegoating.. This analogy is still perpetuated to today, where God is basically saying to Satan, Oh, look, you can kill Jesus, you can actually get rid of Him by crucifying Him. Its sifting through their writings and coming away with the themes and the ideas that theyre presenting were able to say, Okay. I believe she did keep the recording but if not, if you ask her about it, she might have some resources for you as well, and her handle on Instagram is. God had to make the satisfaction for Himself. When you hear the words, sin, death, and the devil together, thats usually an indicator of the Christus Victor theory. Nor is it the "Wesleyan" view if Wesley himself did not hold to it, nor the great Orthodox Methodist theologians: Watson, Summers, and Pope to name a few. The Wesleyan Church is an evangelical, Protestant, holiness denomination organized to proclaim the good news of Jesus Christ. Then, God could forgive men on other grounds. Nothing in the Christian system, wrote John Wesley, is of greater consequence than the doctrine of the atonement. How we answer this questions fundamentally shapes how we see the world and how we live our lives. Each contributor proffers their view at length which is then critiqued by the other respective contributors. This is describing what happened in Genesis 3. Again, its important to understand the culture in which Anselm was writing. The Hebrew of the Samaritans varies in form, just as the content Christ, Community, and Creativity (Part Three). Even though Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the only one of the five organizers to live in Seneca Falls, the Wesleyan Chapel was well known to them all.The church was a local haven for antislavery activity, political . So, any salvation, in order for salvation to happen, it must be first free man from Satans dominion, and Ill have sources for this in the show notes. Youre actually going to notice that some of these sound very, very similar, theyre only slightly different, and some of these can be held simultaneously where you hold to one theory primarily, but you also think that another theory is fairly valid, or maybe its another view that can be held in conjunction with the first one, and then, youve got those that really start to push the boundaries of orthodoxy, and start to walk away from whats been historically taught by the church. ~z-$7y+t~y?vdVn.ZzZr4*\!tiN Youre going to see a connection and an explanation for that in which we see that those types and shadows of the animal sacrifices pointed to the sacrifice of Jesus. 0000003243 00000 n If youre tired of hearing the watered-down Christian teaching and youre hungry for a deeper spiritual life, I have something for you. The beauty of being Gods daughter has some backstory, and its left out in a lot of messages preached to women. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2019. Louth resources Vladimir Lossky, Sergii Bulgakov, and Isaac of Nineveh in the articulation of his view. The third theory is satisfaction theory. 0000003504 00000 n What is it? 1 Cor 15:3, 1 Thes 5:10). The church father, who is responsible for this theory, is Anselm, who developed it in the early Middle Ages. Apparently, I seriously underestimated how much time it was going to take for me to research this episode, and because of that, we have a little gap in our theology series. He thought that those who denied this truth and adhered to the Calvinistic (or "particular") scheme were in error because they elevated their theological system above the clear teaching of Scripture. But maybe that group actually wasnt wrong in the first place. Just seeing the suffering, seeing the pain, that should be enough to deter us from sin. Thats what hes saying here. This one was mostly developed by Calvin and the reformers. Were going to be looking at ransom theory, Christus Victor, satisfaction theory, vicarious atonement, government theory, and scapegoat theory. It was just a repackaged version of Arianism, which is an anti-Trinitarian heresy. How did Christ defeat Satan through the Cross? The Wesleyan Church believes the atonement is: unconditionally effective in the salvation of those mentally incompetent from birth, of those converted persons who have become mentally incompetent, and of children under the age of accountability. Its one of the few distinctly English words in theology that doesnt derive from Hebrew, Greek, or Latin. While there are some really neat elements of scapegoat theory that I think are worth considering, as a general rule, this is a theory that is perpetuated within progressive theology, and in doing so, also will undermine other key doctrines regarding the deity of Christ or the Trinity or theology of sin, things like that. It remains the dominant view of the atonement for most Evangelicals. With a question like this, there are multiple answers that can be held within orthodoxy. Obviously, Abelard came to quite different conclusions about the same passages conservatives would later exegete in support of penal substitution. trailer << /Size 280 /Prev 297506 /Root 249 0 R /Info 247 0 R /ID [ ] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 249 0 obj <> endobj 250 0 obj <<>> endobj 251 0 obj <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF /Text/ImageC]>>/Group<>/Annots[252 0 R 253 0 R 254 0 R 255 0 R 256 0 R 257 0 R 258 0 R 259 0 R 260 0 R]>> endobj 252 0 obj <>>> endobj 253 0 obj <>>> endobj 254 0 obj <>>> endobj 255 0 obj <>>> endobj 256 0 obj <>>> endobj 257 0 obj <>>> endobj 258 0 obj <>>> endobj 259 0 obj <>>> endobj 260 0 obj <>>> endobj 261 0 obj <> endobj 262 0 obj <>/W[1[190 302 405 405 204 204 455 476 476 476 269 840 613 573 673 709 558 532 704 322 550 853 546 612 483 705 876 406 489 405 497 420 262 438 495 238 448 231 753 500 492 490 324 345 294 487 421 639 399 431 387 1015 561]]/FontDescriptor 266 0 R>> endobj 263 0 obj <> endobj 264 0 obj <> endobj 265 0 obj <> endobj 266 0 obj <> endobj 267 0 obj <> endobj 268 0 obj <> endobj 269 0 obj <> endobj 270 0 obj <> stream Ultimately the atonement for Horton is a matter for the triune God's purposes to save the elect. One of the things that this theory, substitutionary atonement, takes into account is the Old Testament sacrificial system. Is the atoning work of Christ about the Son, the Father, or us? There are quite a few church fathers who are said to hold to this Clement, Ignatius, Justin Martyr, Athanasius, and Ambrose are all said to hold to this theory. I believe she did keep the recording but if not, if you ask her about it, she might have some resources for you as well, and her handle on Instagram is @amycategannett, C-A-T-E, Gannet, G-A-N-N-E-T. We see this in Isaiah 53, the image of the suffering servant. He was demonstrating that sin has a cost. I will admit, it was through more liberal theology that I found Jesus and accepted Him as my savior. It was necessary, therefore, to have an atonement that would provide grounds for forgiveness, and simultaneously retain the structure of moral government.. Anselm, when he was creating this theory that the crux of it is that Christ obeyed where humans should have obeyed. Theres evil, theres a demonic power, theres people who are partnered with that demonic power, and then, there are people who are in bondage to that power. Paul is saying, the victory that you see there, the way that this is acted out visually in front of you on a daily basis, living under Roman rule, thats the kind of victory you have in Christ because of what Christ did to evil, what He did to the enemy. This idea of Christ as a conqueror, as the overcoming King would connect well to the imagery that we see, such as in 2 Corinthians 2, where the apostles writing about the victory that we experience in daily life in the Lord using the imagery of a Roman emperor leading conquered leaders of hostile forces. in the Methodist Church the truth is that within modern Methodism there is a vast schism between the biblically high view of atonement of the Methodist's founding fathers and unenlightened, ignorant theologians who reduce Christ's atonement to simply an . Death is a punishment for sin, not the payment for salvation. Jesus likely performed many more miracles than are listed in the Gospel accounts. This view of Christ's atonement leaves mankind without a true sacrifice or payment for sin. One modern theologian describes Anselms God as a status-paranoid power-monger who deliberately humiliates and infantilizes human beings under the guise of justice. Further, a thinker and theologian who lived around the time of Anselm, the French philosopher and ethicist Peter Abelard, wrote this: Indeed how cruel and wicked it seems that anyone should demand the blood of an innocent person as the price for anything, or that it should in any way please him that an innocent man should be slain still less that God should consider the death of his Son so agreeable that by it he should be reconciled to the whole world? Whats demonstrated on the cross here is that the suffering of Christ for sin, in general, should be enough to deter us from sin. For instance, you can say that God overcame sin, death, and the devil through Christ, that the main center of this is Christ overcoming these things and therefore accomplishing salvation for humanity, while also holding on to things like satisfaction theory or even vicarious atonement. If he died for the sins of the world to pay their penalty, then it would result in universalism. So, lets start with ransom theory. Man is totally depraved. Stop Calling Me Beautiful is a book about going deeper with God. Christ brought us back to God, but how? One of the implications of the imago Dei is that humans . Wesleyan Chapel, site of the 1848 Women's Rights Convention . So, his example of love is one that we should be emulating. This one was founded by Peter Abelard in reaction to Anselm. Im so excited to put this book in your hands. The earth and heaven are locked in a cosmic struggle between good (God) and evil (Satan). Levering points out that Catholic tradition is admittedly paradoxically committed to Gods efficacious predestination of certain rational creatures for salvation and God superabundantly loves without constriction every rational creature. If they get rid of Him, then the tensions will resolve. What is happening in this atonement theory if Jesus is not being specifically punished? Government theory has been the most confusing for me to study, so Im trying to reiterate a few of the principles here so that I can try and express exactly what is being said. Every woman should be a student of the heart of God. God was making the atonement. Wesleyan Arminianism is classical Arminianism with the addition of Wesleyan perfectionism. God is essentially buying the children of God, buying humanity back from Satans dominion. The interactions between authors were earnest yet polite. Ask questions, seek answers, and devote yourself to becoming a disciple of Jesus Christ. This volume edited by Adam Johnson deals with the question, For whom did Christ die? This is known as the debate over the extent and efficacy of the atonement. Christus Victor was the dominant theory for most of church history as well see, when we talk about a few of the other theories. But the people who held to government theory were almost universally orthodox, at least until recently. 0000005591 00000 n So, because they believe anyone can come to the Lord after the Lord has called them, they could not hold to this idea of everyones penalty being paid, because if the penalty is paid, as J. Kenneth Grider was saying, then logical conclusion is universalism. says that, Christ suffered for us. Penal Substitutionary Atonement/Vicarious Atonement. 0000002263 00000 n For Anselm, writes one historian, the notion that the devils originator, his creator, could ever be in his debt was absurd. We also see that Jesus describes His death as an illustration of love, which could even fall under the moral influence theory, though that one would not be considered orthodox. These were humans interpreting Scripture, and they also had a cultural context that impacted how they were looking at Scripture. Wesleyan theology, otherwise known as Wesleyan- Arminian theology, or Methodist theology, is a theological tradition in Protestant Christianity based upon the ministry of the 18th-century evangelical reformer brothers John Wesley and Charles Wesley. In the New, like much of the foundational Lutheran ideas of the Reformation, support for penal substitution can be found in Pauls words in Romans. Instead, hes saying, Christ suffered for everyone so the father could forgive the ones who repent and believe. Not to mention literally the entire book of Revelation, which casts the end times as the ultimate and final battle between good and evil. This is called atonement. Here is the opening of my essay: Forgiveness of their sins, if too freely given, would have resulted in undermining the laws authority and effectiveness. Careers Workplace and Religion Columnists, Recreation Outdoors and Religion Columnists, Religious Music and Entertainment Columnists, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Rom 3:21-26 - Translates, Paraphrase, Notes, Studying the New Testament through Inscriptions, Romans 13:1-7 - Translates, Paraphrase, and Notes. The scapegoat whos found, in the case of the gospels, is someone whos hated equally by the Roman authorities and by the Jewish leaders. The absolute freedom of the divine being is recovered because, for Anselm, God has the right to act in his own creation just as he pleases.. It was taken in by the enemy. As we mimic what others do and what they desire, we envy and quarrel. Its to blame, its to cast out, its to burn people at the literal or figurative stake. In which case, I think I would have preferred then a book on the extent of the atonement featuring the early reformation majoring on Luther, something on Dortian perspectives and its hardening among Protestant scholastics, and finally, a type of Protestant minority report mapping Arminian and Amyraldian reactions to Protestant orthodoxy. Im not going to flesh that one out as much as I am with these other six. The Governmental Theory of the Atonement cannot be called the "Arminian" view if Arminius himself did not hold to it. St. Greggory of Nyssa, who lived in the 300s CE and profoundly shaped the way we still think of the Trinity, described it as sort of a bait-and-switch. The history of the various theories of the atonement is made up of differing views on the biblical themes of ransom, redemption, propitiation, substitution, and Christ as moral example. God is both the subject, the reconciler, and also the object, the reconciled. Thus, Christ comes to earth as fully human and fully God, receives our punishment, and Gods demand for justice is fulfilled. I think the same goes for penal substitutionary atonement or vicarious atonement, which is the most popular view today. Thats the argument for satisfaction theory. 0000036595 00000 n J. Kenneth Grider believes that if Jesus paid the penalty for the whole world, because thats what Scripture says, that Christ died for the sins of the world. Wesley says: by means implies that God regards us contrary to the actual nature of things, that he accounts us better than we really are, believes us to be righteous when we are unrighteous."44 covenant-based understanding of the of Christ as cial with humanity absorbing the effects of the deadly results of sin avoids the liability of the Well, let me tell you guys, it is no small task to do the research for an episode on atonement theories. There are six or seven atonement theories. This theory actually works well with other atonement theories, because you can hold the Christus Victor, while also seeing some of the specifics in other atonement theories as able to align with it. The punishment and penalty we deserved was laid on Jesus Christ instead of us, so that in the cross both Gods holiness and love are manifested.. When you hear the words, sin, death, and the devil together, that's usually an indicator of the Christus Victor theory. Calvin, who held to more of the vicarious atonement idea, he held that instead of Christ obeying where we should have obeyed, Christ was punished or we should have been punished. This is different from pluralistic salvation where the cross is not needed since the particular Christian universalist sees in the cross the universal reconciliation of everything and everyone in creation. He paid off The Enemy. In a sense, Jesus was scapegoated, but His resurrection proved His innocence and gave an example of love for society. In this theory, it is Gods honor that is offended by our sin. Its a human way to deal with sin and shame, but it was necessary for a time so that humans would not completely collapse in on themselves. Salvation is a gift actually given to all people in their infancy. A resurgence of moral influence atonement, however, came in the 19th century. Because ransom theory does operate a lot within this legal framework, it could be that the idea is that God has set up a rule of law essentially, just order, where because of what Satan did, He is bound to abide by that law, and therefore, He uses a ransom to buyback humanity, and He tricks Satan into doing it. This one should come first, because when we discussed that one, then well be able to talk about all of the other ones because they all connect to each other. The contributors include Andrew Louth (Eastern Orthodox View), Matthew Levering (Roman Catholic View), Michael Horton (Traditional Reformed View), Fred Sanders (Wesleyan View), and Tom Greggs (Christian Universalist View). Wesleyan: Fred Sanders Barthian Universalism: Tom Greggs This book serves not only as a single-volume resource for engaging the views on the extent of the atonement but also as a catalyst for understanding and advancing a balanced approach to this core Christian doctrine. I ended up taking a four week break partially to research the atonement episode and partially because we just needed that time as a family during my social media break here in the middle of 2021, when this episode is being recorded. Ive realized thats a high-level view, speeding through these atonement theories. The work of Christ chiefly consists of demonstrating to the world the amazing depth of Gods love of sinful humanity There is nothing inherent in God that must be appeased before he is willing to forgive humanity. You can grab your copy on Amazon, or for more information, head to my website, phyliciamasonheimer.com, and click the Book tab. Most of the people who hold to scapegoat theory are theologically progressive to the point that what theyre teaching does not align with church history or with Scripture. This is called the Penal Substitutionary theory of atonement. Im going to talk about pursuing the truth of who God is and who we are in relationship to Him, how to study Scripture, how legalism, shallow theology, and false teaching keep us from living boldly as a woman of the word. You could argue that with every single one of these theories though. Some have hypothesized its where the name for Bozo the Clown has originated. These themes emphasize the saving nature of Jesus' death but they do so without linking it explicitly to a single . Im going to have sources for this in the notes, a crime against a king would require more satisfaction, more of a debt, I guess, that a crime against a knight or a slave. Atonement is what God is doing through Christ, in which, this is according to him, the powers of sin, death, and the devil are overcome, and the world is reconciled to God. Scapegoat theory. So, Christs death was a substitute for a penalty. In the Gospels, Jesus performed many miracles. And if youre ready to go deeper, God is just as ready to take you there. What was it about the cross that defeated all the elements of evil throughout the universe? This is almost like ransom theory, but the person whos being paid back is God and not The Enemy. You see it between the zealots, the Jewish leaders in Rome. Knowing that, we can give a little grace for the fact that these theories were adopted and adapted within a cultural context. Its all intertwined. This is Verity, where every woman is a theologian. It says, It was in the best interest of humankind for Christ to die. Their way of explaining it though often had to do with a fear of universalism, because the people who held to this theory were not Calvinistic. From my notes and my research, what some of the scholars I was reading said is that Anselm believed that humans could not render God more than what was due Him. Ultimately, that is what the goal was. The idea that Jesuss death was a ransom to the devil might seem crazy to us, but its not so crazy if you look at the culture that produced it. Very much opposed to the idea of death being a punishment or being a payment for sin. is a book about going deeper with God. That dualism is what concerns most critics of the ransom theory. Theres also this idea that the devil has this right or authority that God could not transcend, that God almost didnt have power over Satan. The satisfaction that was due to God for their sin was greater than anything created beings could give back to him. Its actually an entire theory on the atonement! In fact, most theologians who vocally support one theory will readily admit the other theories hold some validity. Writes one historian of theology: So conscious were the early Christians of the pervasiveness of Satanically inspired evil (see the book of Revelation) that they developed strong dualistic tendencies: God on one side, the devil on the other, and no neutral ground in between.. Brown Church - Latina/o History and Theology, "Michael,Thanks for this post. In satisfaction theory, the judgment that we were supposed to receive is directed away from us because the wrath of God is satisfied. You dont have to settle for watered-down Christian teaching. That knight then answered to the king.